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The ends of the three bones in the knee--the femur, tibia, and patella--are covered with cartilage (a smooth material that covers bone ends of a joint to cushion the bone and allow the joint to move easily without pain) that acts as a shock absorber. Between the bones of the knees are two crescent-shaped discs of connective tissue, called menisci, which also act as shock absorbers to cushion the lower part of the leg from the weight of the rest of the body.
Meniscus tears can occur during a rotating movement while bearing weight, such as when twisting the upper leg while the foot stays in one place during sports and other activities. Tears can be minor, with the meniscus staying connected to the knee, or major, with the meniscus barely attached to the knee by a cartilage thread.
The following are the most common symptoms of a torn meniscus. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
- Pain, especially when holding the knee straight
- Swelling and stiffness
- Knee may click or lock
- Knee may feel weak
The symptoms of a torn meniscus may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.
In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for a torn meniscus may include the following:
- X-ray. A diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body; can often determine damage or disease in a surrounding ligament or muscle.
- Arthroscopy. A minimally-invasive diagnostic and treatment procedure used for conditions of a joint. This procedure uses a small, lighted, optic tube (arthroscope) which is inserted into the joint through a small incision in the joint. Images of the inside of the joint are projected onto a screen; used to evaluate any degenerative and/or arthritic changes in the joint; to detect bone diseases and tumors; to determine the cause of bone pain and inflammation.
Specific treatment for a torn meniscus will be determined by your doctor based on:
- Your age, overall health, and medical history
- Extent of the injury
- Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, and therapies
- Expectation for the course of the injury
- Your opinion or preference
Treatment may include:
- Medication, such as ibuprofen
- Muscle-strengthening exercises
- Arthroscopic surgery
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Online Resources of Orthopaedic Surgery
Last reviewed: 1/30/2012